The development of computers as science is said to have occurred 3000 years before the birth of Christ in Mesopotamia when the first people invented the abacus to teach children to count. Since then, the progress of computers has had a magic effect on human life. The ease with which computers are performed, from complex mathematical calculations to engineering, medical, education, fashion, business, insurance, banks, printing, cinema and data storage in the entire field of daily life, is a There seems to be an incredible story of the wonderful world and which may be a challenge in the coming years as a challenge to human creativity and imagination.
Traditionally an educated person is said to have knowledge of 3R – that is, those who have knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic. But in the present age, another R has been added as an essential parameter of an educated person and that is computer knowledge. It is said of a computer that it is an electronic device that performs various types of operations according to instructions, called programs. The greatest feature of a computer is that a computer can perform data access, data store, and processing millions of times faster and more accurately than the human brain.
A computer mainly performs the following important tasks very fast and efficiently-
- Access data.
- Processes data.
- Stores data.
- Retrieves data.
That is, the data of the computer which has been deleted or lost by mistake and when we restore it again, it is called data retrieving. Lost or deleted data is present in the disk of the computer fragment.
Apart from this, playing games through the computer, railway and airplane reservations, weather forecasts, error detection, flight control, and many other tasks are easily performed. The computer edits all these tasks through the “Input – Process Output Cycle”.
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is called the brain of the computer that guides, directs, and operates its performance. Since a computer has a brain as a CPU, it also has a memory. Memory is a device in a computer that stores data or programs permanently and temporarily, which can be used as per need. A bit is the initial unit of memory. A byte is the smallest unit in which data can be represented. Data is represented or stored in kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, terabyte, and petabyte units.
Software and Hardware
The physical or tactile parts of a computer are called hardware. These can be electronic, electrical, or machinery equipment. Input and output devices, CPUs, floppy disks, etc. are hardware parts. Software is the set of programs that conduct the operation of a computer.
The technique of connecting more than one computer to a cable and thus performing a function is called computer networking. This type of computer networking allows users to share information from all computers that are interconnected. Similarly, the interconnection of computers by cable in a limited geographical area is called a local area network.
Sitting in a house in a city in India, when you connect to the computer network of the library of a university in New York City in the United States of America, then you can easily find the information stored in that computer in New York. Can access from and use as per your requirement. In this way, if many computer networks of the world are connected, then the “network of networks” is created and this is called “network of networks” internet. In this way, millions of computers are connected to the internet, from which information and communication are shared.
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